The hub of the Roman Empire was Rome, believed to have been founded around 625 BCE. Originally a kingdom, the citizens eventually took power and formed the Roman Republic which lasted for some 500 years until its last consul, Julius Caesar was assasinated.
After Caesar's death, the task of reforming the Roman state and restoring peace and stability fell to his grandnephew, Augustus, who was eighteen years old.
Augustus became consul and increased his power base. In 27 BCE he effectively became Emperor and this marks the birth of the Roman Empire. Numerous territories were added to the Empire and over the years and subsequent emperors, further conquests were made which included Britain until under Trajan, the empire reached its peak.
Meanwhile, great migrations were taking place across Europe and before long hordes of Barbarians from the north were descending on Rome itself. On several occassions it was sacked and in 476 CE the city was conquered and occupied by the Visigoths thus bringing the Empire to an end.
The Eastern Empire
But what is generally referred to as the fall of Rome does not include the eastern empire. This, with its centre in Constantinople, managed to cling on for almost another thousand years until it was eventually conquered by the Turks under their leader Mohammed II in the year AD 1453.
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